Vol. 7, No. 4, Dec. 2011
Amit Grover, Hal Berghel
Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 561-580, Dec. 2011
Keywords: RFID, RFID Standards, RFID Protocols, RFID Security, EPC structure, RFID Applications, RFID Classification
Show / Hide AbstractThis paper describes different aspects of a typical RFID implementation. Section 1 provides a brief overview of the concept of Automatic Identification and compares the use of different technologies while Section 2 describes the basic components of a typical RFID system. Section 3 and Section 4 deal with the detailed specifications of RFID transponders and RFID interrogators respectively. Section 5 highlights different RFID standards and protocols and Section 6 enumerates the wide variety of applications where RFID systems are known to have made a positive improvement. Section 7 deals with privacy issues concerning the use of RFIDs and Section 8 describes common RFID system vulnerabilities. Section 9 covers a variety of RFID security issues, followed by a detailed listing of countermeasures and precautions in Section 10.
A Multi-Application Controller for SAGE-enabled Tiled Display Wall in Wide-area Distributed Computing EnvironmentsYuki Fujiwara, Susumu Date, Kohei Ichikawa, Haruo Takemura
Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 581-594, Dec. 2011
Keywords: T iled Display Wall, SAGE, Multiple Application Control
Show / Hide AbstractDue to the recent advancement of networking and high-performance computing technologies, scientists can easily access large-scale data captured by scientific measurement devices through a network, and use huge computational power harnessed on the Internet for their analyses of scientific data. However, visualization technology, which plays a role of great importance for scientists to intuitively understand the analysis results of such scientific data, is not fully utilized so that it can seamlessly benefit from recent high-performance and networking technologies. One of such visualization technologies is SAGE (Scalable Adaptive Graphics Environment), which allows people to build an arbitrarily sized tiled display wall and is expected to be applied to scientific research. In this paper, we present a multi-application controller for SAGE, which we have developed, in the hope that it will help scientists efficiently perform scientific research requiring high-performance computing and visualization. The evaluation in this paper indicates that the efficiency of completing a comparison task among multiple data is increased by our system.
Amartya Neogi, Abhoy Ch, Mondal, Soumitra Kumar M, al
Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 595-612, Dec. 2011
Keywords: Performance Appraisal, Cascaded Fuzzy Inference System, University Non-Teaching Staff, Sensitivity Analysis, Gaussian MF, Fuzzy Rules
Show / Hide AbstractMost organizations use performance appraisal system to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of their employees. In evaluating staff performance, performance appraisal usually involves awarding numerical values or linguistic labels to employees performance. These values and labels are used to represent each staff achievement by reasoning incorporated in the arithmetical or statistical methods. However, the staff performance appraisal may involve judgments which are based on imprecise data especially when a person (the superior) tries to interpret another person’s (his/her subordinate) performance. Thus, the scores awarded by the appraiser are only approximations. From fuzzy logic perspective, the performance of the appraisee involves the measurement of his/her ability, competence and skills, which are actually fuzzy concepts that can be captured in fuzzy terms. Accordingly, fuzzy approach can be used to handle these imprecision and uncertainty information. Therefore, the performance appraisal system can be examined using Fuzzy Logic Approach, which is carried out in the study. The study utilized a Cascaded fuzzy inference system to generate the performance qualities of some University non-teaching staff that are based on specific performance appraisal criteria.
Da-Ren Chen, You-Shyang Chen
Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 613-626, Dec. 2011
Keywords: Hard Real-time Systems, Power-aware Scheduling, Dynamic Voltage Scaling, Pinwheel Tasks
Show / Hide AbstractIn this paper, we focus on the pinwheel task model with a variable voltage processor with d discrete voltage/speed levels. We propose an intra-task DVS algorithm, which constructs a minimum energy schedule for k tasks in O(d+k log k) time. We also give an inter-task DVS algorithm with O(d+n log n) time, where n denotes th e number of jobs. Previous approaches solve this problem by generating a canonical schedule beforehand and adjusting the tasks’ speed in O(dn log n) or O(n3) time. However, the length of a canonical schedule depends on the hyper period of those task periods and is of exponential length in general. In our approach, the tasks with arbitrary periods are first transformed into harmonic periods and then profile their key features. Afterward, an optimal discrete voltage schedule can be computed directly from those features.
Ji-In Kim, Seok-Joo Koh
Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 627-634, Dec. 2011
Keywords: Proxy Mobile IPv6, Handover, Partial Bicasting, Buffering, Simulation Analysis
Show / Hide AbstractThis paper addresses the Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIP) handover using bicasting in mobile/wireless networks. The bicasting scheme can be used to support the PMIP handover, which tends to waste the network resources of wireless links and incurs data losses during handover. We propose an enhanced scheme of PMIP handover, called the partial bicasting with buffering for PMIP (PBB-PMIP). In the PBB-PMIP handover, the bicasting is performed in the “partial” region between the Local Mobility Anchor (LMA) and the Mobile Access Gateway (MAG), when a mobile node is in the handover area. The data packets are buffered at the new MAG during handover to reduce data losses and are then forwarded to mobile nodes after handover. By ns-2 simulations, the proposed PBB-PMIP scheme is compared with the existing schemes of PMIP and PMIP with bicasting. The proposed scheme can benefit from the reduction of handover delay and packet loss, and the effective use of the network resources of wireless links, as compared to the existing handover schemes.
Seo-Young Noh, Shashi K. Gadia
Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 635-652, Dec. 2011
Keywords: Parametric Data Model, Model Comparison, ParaSQL, Spatiotemporal Data
Show / Hide AbstractIn ubiquitous environments, many applications need to process data with time and space dimensions. Because of this, there is growing attention not only on gathering spatiotemporal data in ubiquitous environments, but also on processing such data in databases. In order to obtain the full benefits from spatiotemporal data, we need a data model that naturally expresses the properties of spatiotemporal data. In this paper, we introduce three spatiotemporal data models extended from temporal data models. The main goal of this paper is to determine which data model is less complex in the spatiotemporal context. To this end, we compare their query languages in the complexity aspect because the complexity of a query language is tightly coupled with its underlying data model. Throughout our investigations, we show that it is important to intertwine space and time dimensions and keep one-to-one correspondence between an object in the real world and a tuple in a database in order to naturally express queries in ubiquitous applications.
Performance Evaluation of the WiMAX Network Based on Combining the 2D Markov Chain and MMPP Traffic ModelTonmoy Saha, Md. Abu Shufean, Mahbubul Alam, Md. Imdadul Islam
Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 653-678, Dec. 2011
Keywords: WiMAX, Markov Arrival Process, Markov Modulated Poisson Process, Two dimensional Markov Chain
Show / Hide AbstractWiMAX is intended for fourth generation wireless mobile communications where a group of users are provided with a connection and a fixed length queue. In present literature traffic of such network is analyzed based on the generator matrix of the Markov Arrival Process (MAP). In this paper a simple analytical technique of the two dimensional Markov chain is used to obtain the trajectory of the congestion of the network as a function of a traffic parameter. Finally, a two state phase dependent arrival process is considered to evaluate probability states. The entire analysis is kept independent of modulation and coding schemes.
Md. Syeful Islam, Md. Rezaur Rahman, Anupam Roy, Md. Imdadul Islam, M. R. Amin
Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 679-690, Dec. 2011
Keywords: Carried Traffic, LST, Two-Dimensional Traffic, Cell Dropping Probability, M/G/1 Model
Show / Hide AbstractIn this paper we consider a local area network (LAN) of dual mode service where one is a token bus and the other is a carrier sense multiple access with a collision detection (CSMA/CD) bus. The objective of the paper is to find the overall cell/packet dropping probability of a dual mode LAN for finite length queue M/G/1(m) traffic. Here, the offered traffic of the LAN is taken to be the equivalent carried traffic of a one-millisecond delay. The concept of a tabular solution for two-dimensional Poisson’s traffic of circuit switching is adapted here to find the cell dropping probability of the dual mode packet service. Although the work is done for the traffic of similar bandwidth, it can be extended for the case of a dissimilar bandwidth of a circuit switched network.
Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 691-706, Dec. 2011
Keywords: RFID, Authentication Protocol, Algebraic Attack, Grobner Basis
Show / Hide AbstractSince security and privacy problems in RFID systems have attracted much attention, numerous RFID authentication protocols have been suggested. One of the various design approaches is to use light-weight logics such as bitwise Boolean operations and addition modulo 2m between m-bits words. Because these operations can be implemented in a small chip area, that is the major requirement in RFID protocols, a series of protocols have been suggested conforming to this approach. In this paper, we present new attacks on these lightweight RFID authentication protocols by using the Grobner basis. Our attacks are superior to previous ones for the following reasons: since we do not use the specific characteristics of target protocols, they are generally applicable to various ones. Furthermore, they are so powerful that we can recover almost all secret information of the protocols. For concrete examples, we show that almost all secret variables of six RFID protocols, LMAP, M2AP, EMAP, SASI, Lo et al."s protocol, and Lee et al."s protocol, can be recovered within a few seconds on a single PC.
A Log Analysis System with REST Web Services for Desktop Grids and its Application to Resource Group-based Task SchedulingJoon-Min Gil, Mihye Kim
Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 707-716, Dec. 2011
Keywords: Desktop Grids, Execution Behavior, Log Analysis System, REST Web Services, Resource Group-based Task Scheduling
Show / Hide AbstractIt is important that desktop grids should be able to aggressively deal with the dynamic properties that arise from the volatility and heterogeneity of resources. Therefore, it is required that task scheduling be able to positively consider the execution behavior that is characterized by an individual resource. In this paper, we implement a log analysis system with REST web services, which can analyze the execution behavior by utilizing the actual log data of desktop grid systems. To verify the log analysis system, we conducted simulations and showed that the resource group-based task scheduling, based on the analysis of the execution behavior, offers a faster turnaround time than the existing one even if few resources are used.
Simon Fong, Yang Hang, Sabah Mohammed, Jinan Fiaidhi
Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 717-732, Dec. 2011
Keywords: Data Stream Mining, VFDT, OVFDT, C4.5 and Biomedical Domain
Show / Hide AbstractClassification in biomedical applications is an important task that predicts or classifies an outcome based on a given set of input variables such as diagnostic tests or the symptoms of a patient. Traditionally the classification algorithms would have to digest a stationary set of historical data in order to train up a decision-tree model and the learned model could then be used for testing new samples. However, a new breed of classification called stream-based classification can handle continuous data streams, which are ever evolving, unbound, and unstructured, for instance--biosignal live feeds. These emerging algorithms can potentially be used for real-time classification over biosignal data streams like EEG and ECG, etc. This paper presents a pioneer effort that studies the feasibility of classification algorithms for analyzing biosignals in the forms of infinite data streams. First, a performance comparison is made between traditional and stream-based classification. The results show that accuracy declines intermittently for traditional classification due to the requirement of model re-learning as new data arrives. Second, we show by a simulation that biosignal data streams can be processed with a satisfactory level of performance in terms of accuracy, memory requirement, and speed, by using a collection of stream-mining algorithms called Optimized Very Fast Decision Trees. The algorithms can effectively serve as a corner-stone technology for real-time classification in future biomedical applications.