Vol. 6, No. 3, Sep. 2010
DEESR: Dynamic Energy Efficient and Secure Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks in Urban EnvironmentsMohammad S. Obaidat, Sanjay K. Dhur, her, Deepank Gupta, Nidhi Gupta, Anupriya Asthana
Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 269-294, Sep. 2010
Keywords: Sensor network, Security, Energy Efficiency, Routing, Dynamic Trust Factor
Show / Hide AbstractThe interconnection of mobile devices in urban environments can open up a lot of vistas for collaboration and content-based services. This will require setting up of a network in an urban environment which not only provides the necessary services to the user but also ensures that the network is secure and energy efficient. In this paper, we propose a secure, energy efficient dynamic routing protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks in urban environments. A decision is made by every node based on various parameters like longevity, distance, battery power which measure the node and link quality to decide the next hop in the route. This ensures that the total load is distributed evenly while conserving the energy of battery-constrained nodes. The protocol also maintains a trusted population for each node through Dynamic Trust Factor (DTF) which ensures secure communication in the environment by gradually isolating the malicious nodes. The results obtained show that the proposed protocol when compared with another energy efficient protocol (MMBCR) and a widely accepted protocol (DSR) gives far better results in terms of energy efficiency. Similarly, it also outdoes a secure protocol (QDV) when it comes to detecting malicious nodes in the network.
Mohamed Mostafa A. Azim
Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 295-306, Sep. 2010
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network(WSN), Energy Efficient Routing
Show / Hide AbstractNetwork lifetime is a critical issue in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In which, a large number of sensor nodes communicate together to perform a predetermined sensing task. In such networks, the network life time depends mainly on the lifetime of the sensor nodes constituting the network. Therefore, it is essential to balance the energy consumption among all sensor nodes to ensure the network connectivity. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient data routing protocol for wireless sensor networks. Contrary to the protocol proposed in , that always selects the path with minimum hop count to the base station, our proposed routing protocol may choose a longer path that will provide better distribution of the energy consumption among the sensor nodes. Simulation results indicate clearly that compared to the routing protocol proposed in , our proposed protocol evenly distributes the energy consumption among the network nodes thus maximizing the network life time.
Akihiro Satoh, Toshiaki Osada, Toru Abe, Gen Kitagata, Norio Shiratori, Tetsuo Kinoshita
Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 307-322, Sep. 2010
Keywords: Mobile IP Network, Traffic Classification, Network Management, Traffic Engineering, Machine Learning
Show / Hide AbstractTraffic classification is an essential task for network management. Many researchers have paid attention to initial sub-flow features based classifiers for traffic classification. However, the existing classifiers cannot classify traffic effectively in mobile IP networks. The classifiers depend on initial sub-flows, but they cannot always capture the sub-flows at a point of attachment for a variety of elements because of seamless mobility. Thus the ideal classifier should be capable of traffic classification based on not only initial sub-flows but also various types of sub-flows. In this paper, we propose a classifiable sub-flow selection method to realize the ideal classifier. The experimental results are so far promising for this research direction, even though they are derived from a reduced set of general applications and under relatively simplifying assumptions. Altogether, the significant contribution is indicating the feasibility of the ideal classifier by selecting not only initial sub-flows but also transition sub-flows.
Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 323-334, Sep. 2010
Keywords: UBcN, Broadband, NGN, Converged Services, Policies
Show / Hide AbstractThe broadcasting & telecommunication services in the future will be converged and be serviced on mobile devices. However, the current ICT infrastructure does not fully meet the future demand for those converged, realistic, intelligent, and personalized services. The Korean government is going to establish a high speed next generation network called UBcN (Ultra-Broadband Convergence Network) by 2013. The Korean government has announced a multi-year plan to establish an UBcN network and to discover and stimulate new converged services for an UBcN in January, 2009. The author of this paper has taken part in formulating development plans since the early stages of planning. In this paper, Korea's development plans for the next generation network and their development strategies are analyzed and discussed based on the author's experience. The paper also discusses the expected impacts of the plan for the future ICT industry, and the implications of government-driven development plans.
Solving the Discrete Logarithm Problem for Ephemeral Keys in Chang and Chang Password Key Exchange ProtocolR. Padmavathy, Chakravarthy Bhagvati
Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 335-346, Sep. 2010
Keywords: Ephemeral Key, Pohlig-Hellman Method, Van-Oorschot Method, Index Calculus Method, Chang-Chang Password Key Exchange Protocol
Show / Hide AbstractThe present study investigates the difficulty of solving the mathematical problem, namely the DLP (Discrete Logarithm Problem) for ephemeral keys. The DLP is the basis for many public key cryptosystems. The ephemeral keys are used in such systems to ensure security. The DLP defined on a prime field Z * p of random prime is considered in the present study. The most effective method to solve the DLP is the ICM (Index Calculus Method). In the present study, an efficient way of computing the DLP for ephemeral keys by using a new variant of the ICM when the factors of p ?1 are known and small is proposed. The ICM has two steps, a pre-computation and an individual logarithm computation. The pre-computation step is to compute the logarithms of a subset of a group and the individual logarithm step is to find the DLP using the precomputed logarithms. Since the ephemeral keys are dynamic and change for every session, once the logarithms of a subset of a group are known, the DLP for the ephemeral key can be obtained using the individual logarithm step. Therefore, an efficient way of solving the individual logarithm step based on the newly proposed precomputation method is presented and the performance is analyzed using a comprehensive set of experiments. The ephemeral keys are also solved by using other methods, which are efficient on random primes, such as the Pohlig-Hellman method, the Van Oorschot method and the traditional individual logarithm step. The results are compared with the newly proposed individual logarithm step of the ICM. Also, the DLP of ephemeral keys used in a popular password key exchange protocol known as Chang and Chang are computed and reported to launch key recovery attack.
Seong Young Ko, Won-Chul Bang, Sang-Youn Kim
Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 347-358, Sep. 2010
Keywords: Hand-Drawn Gesture, Hand-Held Device, Inertial Measurement Unit, PHANToMTM , Calibration
Show / Hide AbstractThis paper presents a measurement system for 3D hand-drawn gesture motion. Many pen-type input devices with Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) have been developed to estimate 3D hand-drawn gesture using the measured acceleration and/or the angular velocity of the device. The crucial procedure in developing these devices is to measure and to analyze their motion or trajectory. In order to verify the trajectory estimated by an IMU-based input device, it is necessary to compare the estimated trajectory to the real trajectory. For measuring the real trajectory of the pen-type device, a PHANToMTM haptic device is utilized because it allows us to measure the 3D motion of the object in real-time. Even though the PHANToMTM measures the position of the hand gesture well, poor initialization may produce a large amount of error. Therefore, this paper proposes a calibration method which can minimize measurement errors.
Eric Renault, Ahmad Ahmad, Mohamed Abid
Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 359-374, Sep. 2010
Keywords: Future Internet, Network of Information, Security, Storage Space, Access Rights
Show / Hide AbstractThe Future Internet that includes Real World Objects and the Internet of Things together with the more classic web pages will move communications from a nodecentric organization to an information-centric network allowing new a paradigm to take place. The 4WARD project initiated some works on the Future Internet. One of them is the creation of a Network of Information designed to enable more powerful semantic searches. In this paper, we propose a security solution for a model of information based on a semantic description and search of objects. The proposed solution takes into account both the access and the management of both objects and their descriptions.
Yong-Kyun Kim, Yun-Hyun Jo, Jin-Won Yun, Taeck-Keun Oh, Hee-Chang Roh, Sang-Bang Choi, Hyo-Dal Park
Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 375-384, Sep. 2010
Keywords: ATC, ATM, Trajectory Prediction, ATFM
Show / Hide AbstractTrajectory modeling is foundational for 4D-Route modeling, conflict detection and air traffic flow management. This paper proposes a novel algorithm based Vincenty’s fomulas for trajectory calculation, combined with the Dijkstra algorithm and Vincenty’s formulas. Using flight plan simulations our experimental results show that our method of En-route trajectory calculation exhibits much improved performance in accuracy.
Manoj Kumar, Anjana Gosain, Yogesh Singh
Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 385-402, Sep. 2010
Keywords: Agent, Dependencies Among Agents, Stakeholders of the Organization, Data Warehouse Requirements Engineering, Early Requirements Engineering, Late Requirements Engineering
Show / Hide AbstractMost of the data warehouse (DW) requirements engineering approaches have not distinguished the early requirements engineering phase from the late requirements engineering phase. There are very few approaches seen in the literature that explicitly model the early & late requirements for a DW. In this paper, we propose an AGDI (Agent-Goal-Decision-Information) model to support the early and late requirements for the development of DWs. Here, the notion of agent refers to the stakeholders of the organization and the dependency among agents refers to the dependencies among stakeholders for fulfilling their organizational goals. The proposed AGDI model also supports three interrelated modeling activities namely, organization modeling, decision modeling and information modeling. Here, early requirements are modeled by performing organization modeling and decision modeling activities, whereas late requirements are modeled by performing information modeling activities. The proposed approach has been illustrated to capture the early and late requirements for the development of a university data warehouse exemplifying our model’s ability of supporting its decisional goals by providing decisional information.
DongHo Kim, SoonSeok Kim, YongHee Lee
Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 403-412, Sep. 2010
Keywords: Multi-Relay Networks, Handover
Show / Hide AbstractMulti-Relay Networks should accommodate mobile users of various speeds. The cellular system should meet the minimum residency time requirements for handover calls while considering an efficient use of available channels. In this paper, we design speed-sensitive handover under dynamic hierarchical cellular systems, in which mobile users are classified according to the mean speed of mobile users and each class has its cellular layer. In order to meet the minimum residency time, the cell size of each cellular layer is dynamically determined depending on the distributions of mean speeds of mobile users. Since the speed-dependent non-preferred cell can provide a secondary resource, overflow and take-back schemes are adopted in the system. We develop analytical models to study the performance of the proposed system, and show that the optimal cell size improves the blocking probability.
On the Handling of Node Failures: Energy-Efficient Job Allocation Algorithm for Real-time Sensor NetworksHamid Karimi, Mehdi Kargahi, Nasser Yazdani
Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 413-434, Sep. 2010
Keywords: Failure Recovery, Job Allocation, Quality of Service, Real-time Scheduling, Wireless Sensor Network
Show / Hide AbstractWireless sensor networks are usually characterized by dense deployment of energy constrained nodes. Due to the usage of a large number of sensor nodes in uncontrolled hostile or harsh environments, node failure is a common event in these systems. Another common reason for node failure is the exhaustion of their energy resources and node inactivation. Such failures can have adverse effects on the quality of the real-time services in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). To avoid such degradations, it is necessary that the failures be recovered in a proper manner to sustain network operation. In this paper we present a dynamic Energy efficient Real-Time Job Allocation (ERTJA) algorithm for handling node failures in a cluster of sensor nodes with the consideration of communication energy and time overheads besides the nodes’ characteristics. ERTJA relies on the computation power of cluster members for handling a node failure. It also tries to minimize the energy consumption of the cluster by minimum activation of the sleeping nodes. The resulting system can then guarantee the Quality of Service (QoS) of the cluster application. Further, when the number of sleeping nodes is limited, the proposed algorithm uses the idle times of the active nodes to engage a graceful QoS degradation in the cluster. Simulation results show significant performance improvements of ERTJA in terms of the energy conservation and the probability of meeting deadlines compared with the other studied algorithms.