Ji Su Park, Jong Hyuk Park
Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 743-749, Aug. 2020
Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Internet of Things, machine vision, 5G Mobile Network
Show / Hide AbstractInternet of Things (IoT) is a growing technology along with artificial intelligence (AI) technology. Recently, increasing cases of developing knowledge services using information collected from sensor data have been reported. Communication is required to connect the IoT and AI, and 5G mobile networks have been widely spread recently. IoT, AI services, and 5G mobile networks can be configured and used as sensor-mobile edgeserver. The sensor does not send data directly to the server. Instead, the sensor sends data to the mobile edge for quick processing. Subsequently, mobile edge enables the immediate processing of data based on AI technology or by sending data to the server for processing. 5G mobile network technology is used for this data transmission. Therefore, this study examines the challenges, opportunities, and solutions used in each type of technology. To this end, this study addresses clustering, Hyperledger Fabric, data, security, machine vision, convolutional neural network, IoT technology, and resource management of 5G mobile networks.
Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 750-759, Aug. 2020
Keywords: Analysis, Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN), Scenic Spot, Spatial Clustering, Stay Point, trajectory
Show / Hide AbstractThe wide application of various integrated location-based services (LBS social) and tourism application (app) has generated a large amount of trajectory space data. The trajectory data are used to identify popular tourist attractions with high density of tourists, and they are of great significance to smart service and emergency management of scenic spots. A hot spot analysis method is proposed, based on spatial clustering of trajectory stop points. The DBSCAN algorithm is studied with fast clustering speed, noise processing and clustering of arbitrary shapes in space. The shortage of parameters is manually selected, and an improved method is proposed to adaptively determine parameters based on statistical distribution characteristics of data. DBSCAN clustering analysis and contrast experiments are carried out for three different datasets of artificial synthetic twodimensional dataset, four-dimensional Iris real dataset and scenic track retention point. The experiment results show that the method can automatically generate reasonable clustering division, and it is superior to traditional algorithms such as DBSCAN and k-means. Finally, based on the spatial clustering results of the trajectory stay points, the Getis-Ord Gi* hotspot analysis and mapping are conducted in ArcGIS software. The hot spots of different tourist attractions are classified according to the analysis results, and the distribution of popular scenic spots is determined with the actual heat of the scenic spots.
Junho Jeong, Donghyo Kim, Byungdo Lee, Yunsik Son
Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 760-773, Aug. 2020
Keywords: Blockchain, Digital Evidence Management, digital forensic, Hyperledger Fabric, Smart Contract
Show / Hide AbstractWhen a crime occurs, the information necessary for solving the case, and various pieces of the evidence needed to prove the crime are collected from the crime scene. The tangible residues collected through scientific methods at the crime scene become evidence at trial and a clue to prove the facts directly against the offense of the suspect. Therefore, the scientific investigation and forensic handling for securing objective forensic in crime investigation is increasingly important. Today, digital systems, such as smartphones, CCTVs, black boxes, etc. are increasingly used as criminal information investigation clues, and digital forensic is becoming a decisive factor in investigation and trial. However, the systems have the risk that digital forensic may be damaged or manipulated by malicious insiders in the existing centralized management systems based on client/server structure. In this paper, we design and implement a blockchain based digital forensic management model using Hyperledger Fabric and Docker to guarantee the reliability and integrity of digital forensic. The proposed digital evidence management model allows only authorized participants in a distributed environment without a central management agency access the network to share and manage potential crime data. Therefore, it could be relatively safe from malicious internal attackers compared to the existing client/server model.
Qinghua Liu, Yuanxin He, Chang Jiang
Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 774-783, Aug. 2020
Keywords: Direction of Arrival (DOA), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), MIMO, Reverse Projection, Symmetric Sub-array
Show / Hide AbstractFor the issue of subsurface target localization by reverse projection, a new approach of target localization with different distances based on symmetric sub-array multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar is proposed in this paper. By utilizing the particularity of structure of the two symmetric sub-arrays, the received signals are jointly reconstructed to eliminate the distance information from the steering vectors. The distance-independent direction of arrival (DOA) estimates are acquired, and the localizations of subsurface targets with different distances are realized by reverse projection. According to the localization mechanism and application characteristics of the proposed algorithm, the grid zooming method based on spatial segmentation is used to optimize the locaiton efficiency. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed localization method and optimization scheme.
Li Gong, Hong Wang, Chunling Jin, Lili Lu, Menghan Ma
Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 784-794, Aug. 2020
Keywords: Water Poverty Index (WPI), Type Drive, Urban, Water Security
Show / Hide AbstractIn order to effectively evaluate the urban water security, the study investigates a novel system to assess factors that impact urban water security and builds an urban water poverty evaluation index system. Based on the contribution rates of Resource, Access, Capacity, Use, and Environment, the study adopts the Water Poverty Index (WPI) model to evaluate the water poverty levels of 14 cities in Gansu during 2011–2018 and uses the least variance method to evaluate water poverty space drive types. The case study results show that the water poverty space drive types of 14 cites fall into four categories. The first category is the dual factor dominant type driven by environment and resources, which includes Lanzhou, Qingyang, Jiuquan, and Jiayuguan. The second category is the three-factor dominant type driven by Access, Use, and Capability, which includes Longnan, Linxia, and Gannan. The third category is the four-factor dominant type driven by Resource, Access, Capability, and Environment, which includes Jinchang, Pingliang, Wuwei, Baiyin, and Zhangye. The fourth category is the five-factor dominant type, which includes Tianshui and Dingxi. The driven types impacting the urban water security factors reflected by the WPI and its model are clear and accurate. The divisions of the urban water security level supply a reliable theoretical and numerical basis for an urban water security early warning mechanism.
Lu Chen, Liming Zhou, Jinming Liu
Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 795-808, Aug. 2020
Keywords: Aircraft Recognition, Inception Module, Remote Sensing Images
Show / Hide AbstractDue to the poor evaluation indexes such as detection accuracy and recall rate when Yolov3 network detects aircraft in remote sensing images, in this paper, we propose a remote sensing image aircraft detection method based on machine vision. In order to improve the target detection effect, the Inception module was introduced into the Yolov3 network structure, and then the data set was cluster analyzed using the k-means algorithm. In order to obtain the best aircraft detection model, on the basis of our proposed method, we adjusted the network parameters in the pre-training model and improved the resolution of the input image. Finally, our method adopted multi-scale training model. In this paper, we used remote sensing aircraft dataset of RSOD-Dataset to do experiments, and finally proved that our method improved some evaluation indicators. The experiment of this paper proves that our method also has good detection and recognition ability in other ground objects.
Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 809-819, Aug. 2020
Keywords: Majority Voting, Softmax-based Voting, Ensemble Scheme, Gender Prediction, CNN models
Show / Hide AbstractGender prediction accuracy increases as convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture evolves. This paper compares voting and ensemble schemes to utilize the already trained five CNN models to further improve gender prediction accuracy. The majority voting usually requires odd-numbered models while the proposed softmax-based voting can utilize any number of models to improve accuracy. The ensemble of CNN models combined with one more fully-connected layer requires further tuning or training of the models combined. With experiments, it is observed that the voting or ensemble of CNN models leads to further improvement of gender prediction accuracy and that especially softmax-based voters always show better gender prediction accuracy than majority voters. Also, compared with softmax-based voters, ensemble models show a slightly better or similar accuracy with added training of the combined CNN models. Softmax-based voting can be a fast and efficient way to get better accuracy without further training since the selection of the top accuracy models among available CNN pre-trained models usually leads to similar accuracy to that of the corresponding ensemble models.
Wanying Yan, Junjun Guo
Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 820-831, Aug. 2020
Keywords: Extractive Summarization, Hierarchical Selective Encoding, Redundant Information Clipping
Show / Hide AbstractExtractive document summarization aims to select a few sentences while preserving its main information on a given document, but the current extractive methods do not consider the sentence-information repeat problem especially for news document summarization. In view of the importance and redundancy of news text information, in this paper, we propose a neural extractive summarization approach with joint sentence semantic clipping and selection, which can effectively solve the problem of news text summary sentence repetition. Specifically, a hierarchical selective encoding network is constructed for both sentence-level and documentlevel document representations, and data containing important information is extracted on news text; a sentence extractor strategy is then adopted for joint scoring and redundant information clipping. This way, our model strikes a balance between important information extraction and redundant information filtering. Experimental results on both CNN/Daily Mail dataset and Court Public Opinion News dataset we built are presented to show the effectiveness of our proposed approach in terms of ROUGE metrics, especially for redundant information filtering.
Lang Yu, Gang He, Ahmad Khwaja Mutahir
Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 832-844, Aug. 2020
Keywords: Algorithm Complexity, Multi-Step Recursion Algorithm, sliding window, Variance
Show / Hide AbstractThe degree of dispersion of a random variable can be described by the variance, which reflects the distance of the random variable from its mean. However, the time complexity of the traditional variance calculation algorithm is O(n), which results from full calculation of all samples. When the number of samples increases or on the occasion of high speed signal processing, algorithms with O(n) time complexity will cost huge amount of time and that may results in performance degradation of the whole system. A novel multi-step recursive algorithm for variance calculation of the time-varying data series with O(1) time complexity (constant time) is proposed in this paper. Numerical simulation and experiments of the algorithm is presented and the results demonstrate that the proposed multi-step recursive algorithm can effectively decrease computing time and hence significantly improve the variance calculation efficiency for time-varying data, which demonstrates the potential value for time-consumption data analysis or high speed signal processing.
Maman Abdurohman, Yadi Supriadi, Fitra Zul Fahmi
Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 845-858, Aug. 2020
Keywords: E-LEACH, EERRCUF, ME-LEACH, SEEC, Wireless Sensor Network
Show / Hide AbstractThis paper proposes a modified end-to-end secure low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (ME-LEACH) algorithm for enhancing the lifetime of a wireless sensor network (WSN). Energy limitations are a major constraint in WSNs, hence every activity in a WSN must efficiently utilize energy. Several protocols have been introduced to modulate the way a WSN sends and receives information. The end-to-end secure low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (E-LEACH) protocol is a hierarchical routing protocol algorithm proposed to solve high-energy dissipation problems. Other methods that explore the presence of the most powerful nodes on each cluster as cluster heads (CHs) are the sparsity-aware energy efficient clustering (SEEC) protocol and an energy efficient clustering-based routing protocol that uses an enhanced cluster formation technique accompanied by the fuzzy logic (EERRCUF) method. However, each CH in the E-LEACH method sends data directly to the base station causing high energy consumption. SEEC uses a lot of energy to identify the most powerful sensor nodes, while EERRCUF spends high amounts of energy to determine the super cluster head (SCH). In the proposed method, a CH will search for the nearest CH and use it as the next hop. The formation of CH chains serves as a path to the base station. Experiments were conducted to determine the performance of the ME-LEACH algorithm. The results show that ME-LEACH has a more stable and higher throughput than SEEC and EERRCUF and has a 35.2% better network lifetime than the E-LEACH algorithm.
Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 859-869, Aug. 2020
Keywords: Incremental Checkpoint, Overlapping, Performance
Show / Hide AbstractThis paper introduces page-level rewrite interval prediction (PRWIP). By recording and analyzing the memory access history at page-level, we are able to predict the future memory accesses to any pages. Leveraging this information, this paper proposes a faster incremental checkpoint design by overlapping checkpoint phase with computing phase and thus achieves higher performance. Experimental results show that our new incremental checkpoint design can achieve averagely 22% speedup over traditional incremental checkpoint and 14% over the previous state-of-the-art work.
Cheng Peng, Qing Chen, Longxin Zhang, Lanjun Wan, Xinpan Yuan
Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 870-881, Aug. 2020
Keywords: Fault diagnosis, kNN Algorithm, SCADA dataset, SC-SMOTE Algorithm
Show / Hide AbstractBecause SCADA monitoring data of wind turbines are large and fast changing, the unbalanced proportion of data in various working conditions makes it difficult to process fault feature data. The existing methods mainly introduce new and non-repeating instances by interpolating adjacent minority samples. In order to overcome the shortcomings of these methods which does not consider boundary conditions in balancing data, an improved over-sampling balancing algorithm SC-SMOTE (safe circle synthetic minority oversampling technology) is proposed to optimize data sets. Then, for the balanced data sets, a fault diagnosis method based on improved k-nearest neighbors (kNN) classification for wind turbine blade icing is adopted. Compared with the SMOTE algorithm, the experimental results show that the method is effective in the diagnosis of fan blade icing fault and improves the accuracy of diagnosis.
Jinsu Kang, Yoojae Won
Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 882-895, Aug. 2020
Keywords: computer security, Dynamic Analysis Machine Learning, Metamorphic, Polymorphic, Static Analysis, Windows Malware
Show / Hide AbstractThe amount of malware increases exponentially every day and poses a threat to networks and operating systems. Most new malware is a variant of existing malware. It is difficult to deal with numerous malware variants since they bypass the existing signature-based malware detection method. Thus, research on automated methods of detecting and processing variant malware has been continuously conducted. This report proposes a method of extracting feature data from files and detecting malware using machine learning. Feature data were extracted from 7,000 malware and 3,000 benign files using static and dynamic malware analysis tools. A malware classification model was constructed using multiple DNN, XGBoost, and RandomForest layers and the performance was analyzed. The proposed method achieved up to 96.3% accuracy
Wei-Che Chie, Shih-Yun Huang, Chin-Feng Lai, Han-Chieh Chao
Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 896-914, Aug. 2020
Keywords: Cloud computing, Edge Computing, Network Slicing, resource management, 5G, 5G RAN Techniques
Show / Hide AbstractWith the rapid growth of network traffic, a large number of connected devices, and higher application services, the traditional network is facing several challenges. In addition to improving the current network architecture and hardware specifications, effective resource management means the development trend of 5G. Although many existing potential technologies have been proposed to solve the some of 5G challenges, such as multipleinput multiple-output (MIMO), software-defined networking (SDN), network functions virtualization (NFV), edge computing, millimeter-wave, etc., research studies in 5G continue to enrich its function and move toward B5G mobile networks. In this paper, focusing on the resource allocation issues of 5G core networks and radio access networks, we address the latest technological developments and discuss the current challenges for resource management in 5G.
Mansi Agnihotri, Anuradha Chug
Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 915-934, Aug. 2020
Keywords: Code Smells, Extract Class Refactoring, Feature Envy Bad Smell, Refactoring Techniques, Software Maintenance, Software Metrics
Show / Hide AbstractSoftware refactoring is a process to restructure an existing software code while keeping its external behavior the same. Currently, various refactoring techniques are being used to develop more readable and less complex codes by improving the non-functional attributes of software. Refactoring can further improve code maintainability by applying various techniques to the source code, which in turn preserves the behavior of code. Refactoring facilitates bug removal and extends the capabilities of the program. In this paper, an exhaustive review is conducted regarding bad smells present in source code, applications of specific refactoring methods to remove that bad smell and its effect on software quality. A total of 68 studies belonging to 32 journals, 31 conferences, and 5 other sources that were published between the years 2001 and 2019 were shortlisted. The studies were analyzed based on of bad smells identified, refactoring techniques used, and their effects on software metrics. We found that “long method”, “feature envy”, and “data class” bad smells were identified or corrected in the majority of studies. “Feature envy” smell was detected in 36.66% of the total shortlisted studies. Extract class refactoring approach was used in 38.77% of the total studies, followed by the move method and extract method techniques that were used in 34.69% and 30.61% of the total studies, respectively. The effects of refactoring on complexity and coupling metrics of software were also analyzed in the majority of studies, i.e., 29 studies each. Interestingly, the majority of selected studies (41%) used large open source datasets written in Java language instead of proprietary software. At the end, this study provides future guidelines for conducting research in the field of code refactoring.
Yiran Wang, Dae-Kyoo Kim, Dongwon Jeong
Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 935-958, Aug. 2020
Keywords: Blockchain, Consensus Mechanism, Financial Service, FinTech, Smart Contract
Show / Hide AbstractThe core value of finance is credit. It can be said that without credit, there can be no finance. The distributed structure of the blockchain and the low-cost trust-building mechanism based on mathematical algorithms provide a new solution and path for solving and optimizing related problems in the financial field. The blockchain technology is applied in the development of the financial industry through consensus mechanisms, smart contracts, and distributed networks. In this research, a comprehensive survey of the blockchain technology is proposed in the development of financial services including equity crowdfunding and credit investigations in inclusive finance, cross-border remittance, Internet financial payment, P2P lending, supply chains finance, and the application of blockchain in the field of anti-money laundering. This paper discusses the role of blockchain in solutions to different issues in the financial field. It also discusses the architectures in different financial service application scenarios from the perspective of the financial trust mechanism and the perspective of the technology and rule change of blockchain participation in financial innovation. Finally, the problems and challenges of blockchain in financial services are discussed, and corresponding solutions are proposed.
Jianhua Wang, Haozhan Wang, Fujian Xu, Jun Liu, Lianglun Cheng
Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 959-974, Aug. 2020
Keywords: CU Decision, HEVC, Neighborhood Prediction, Optimal Algorithm
Show / Hide AbstractHigh efficiency video coding (HEVC) employs quadtree coding tree unit (CTU) structure to improve its coding efficiency, but at the same time, it also requires a very high computational complexity due to its exhaustive search processes for an optimal coding unit (CU) partition. With the aim of solving the problem, a fast CU size decision optimal algorithm based on neighborhood prediction is presented for HEVC in this paper. The contribution of this paper lies in the fact that we successfully use the partition information of neighborhood CUs in different depth to quickly determine the optimal partition mode for the current CU by neighborhood prediction technology, which can save much computational complexity for HEVC with negligible RD-rate (rate-distortion rate) performance loss. Specifically, in our scheme, we use the partition information of left, up, and left-up CUs to quickly predict the optimal partition mode for the current CU by neighborhood prediction technology, as a result, our proposed algorithm can effectively solve the problem above by reducing many unnecessary prediction and partition operations for HEVC. The simulation results show that our proposed fast CU size decision algorithm based on neighborhood prediction in this paper can reduce about 19.0% coding time, and only increase 0.102% BD-rate (Bjontegaard delta rate) compared with the standard reference software of HM16.1, thus improving the coding performance of HEVC.
Jose Costa Sapalo Sicato, Sushil Kumar Singh, Shailendra Rathore, Jong Hyuk Park
Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 975-990, Aug. 2020
Keywords: IDS, IoT, M2M, Security, Privacy
Show / Hide AbstractNowadays, the Internet of Things (IoT) network, is increasingly becoming a ubiquitous connectivity between different advanced applications such as smart cities, smart homes, smart grids, and many others. The emerging network of smart devices and objects enables people to make smart decisions through machine to machine (M2M) communication. Most real-world security and IoT-related challenges are vulnerable to various attacks that pose numerous security and privacy challenges. Therefore, IoT offers efficient and effective solutions. intrusion detection system (IDS) is a solution to address security and privacy challenges with detecting different IoT attacks. To develop an attack detection and a stable network, this paper’s main objective is to provide a comprehensive overview of existing intrusion detections system for IoT environment, cyber-security threats challenges, and transparent problems and concerns are analyzed and discussed. In this paper, we propose software-defined IDS based distributed cloud architecture, that provides a secure IoT environment. Experimental evaluation of proposed architecture shows that it has better detection and accuracy than traditional methods.
Content-Based Image Retrieval Using Multi-Resolution Multi-Direction Filtering-Based CLBP Texture Features and Color Autocorrelogram FeaturesHee-Hyung Bu, Nam-Chul Kim, Byoung-Ju Yun, Sung-Ho Kim
Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 991-1000, Aug. 2020
Keywords: Autocorrelogram, Content-based image retrieval, MRMD CLBP, Multi-Resolution Multi-Direction Filter
Show / Hide AbstractWe propose a content-based image retrieval system that uses a combination of completed local binary pattern (CLBP) and color autocorrelogram. CLBP features are extracted on a multi-resolution multi-direction filtered domain of value component. Color autocorrelogram features are extracted in two dimensions of hue and saturation components. Experiment results revealed that the proposed method yields a lot of improvement when compared with the methods that use partial features employed in the proposed method. It is also superior to the conventional CLBP, the color autocorrelogram using R, G, and B components, and the multichannel decoded local binary pattern which is one of the latest methods.