Vol. 1, No. 1, Feb. 2005
Ji-Hye Bae, Yoon-Young Park, Jung-Ho Park
Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-8, Feb. 2005
Keywords: Monitoring tool, NFS, LTT, MONETA 2.0
Show / Hide AbstractEmbedded systems are used in many fields such as home appliances, terminals, controls, communications, etc. So, to manage, control, and test these embedded systems, monitoring programs have been developed variously. In this paper, to overcome the characteristic faults of embedded systems which have resource restrictions, we implemented a development environment based on NFS and designed a monitoring tool that can evaluate and analyze kernel performance in embedded equipment by using LTT(Linux Trace Toolkit). Also, we designed a method to show monitoring data collected by using a monitoring tool, called MONETA 2.0, through the web-page.
Byung-Joo Kim, Il-Kon Kim
Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 9-13, Feb. 2005
Keywords: real-time IDS, kernel PCA. LS-SVM
Show / Hide AbstractComputer security has become a critical issue with the rapid development of business and other ftansaction systems over the Intemet. The application of atlificial intelligence, machine learning and data mining techdques to intrusion detection systems has been increasing recently. But most research is focused on improving the classification performaace of a classifier. Selecting important features from input data leads to simplification olthe problem, and faster and more accuate detection rates. Thus selecting important features is ar impofiant issue in intrusion detection. Alother issue in intrusion detection is that inost of the intrusion detection systems are performed by offJine and it is not a suitable method for a real-time intrusion detection system. In this paper, we develop the real-time intrusion detection system, which combines an online feature extraction method with the Least Squares Suppofi Vector Machine classifier. Applying the proposed system to KDD CUP 99 data, experimental results show that it has a remarkable feature extraction and classification performance compared to existing off-line intntsion detection systems.
Ill-Young Weon, Doo-Heon Song, Sung-Bum Ko, Chang-Hoon Lee
Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 14-21, Feb. 2005
Keywords: Multiple Instance Learning Problem, Network Intrusion Detection, Anomaly Detection
Show / Hide AbstractEven though mainly statistical methods have been used in anomaly network intrusion detection, to detect various attack types, machine learning based anomaly detection was introduced. Machine learning based anomaly detection started from research applying traditional learning algorithms of artificial intelligence to intrusion detection. However, detection rates of these methods are not satisfactory. Especially, high false positive and repeated alarms about the same attack are problems. The main reason for this is that one packet is used as a basic learning unit. Most attacks consist of more than one packet. In addition, an attack does not lead to a consecutive packet stream. Therefore, with grouping of related packets, a new approach of group-based learning and detection is needed. This type of approach is similar to that of multiple-instance problems in the artificial intelligence community, which cannot clearly classify one instance, but classification of a group is possible. We suggest group generation algorithm grouping related packets, and a learning algorithm based on a unit of such group. To verify the usefulness of the suggested algorithm, 1998 DARPA data was used and the results show that our approach is quite useful.
Chi Yoon Jeong, Seung Wan Han, Taek Yong Nam
Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 22-26, Feb. 2005
Keywords: Objectionable documents, document analysis, Text Classification, hierarchical system, SVM
Show / Hide AbstractIn this paper, we classified the objectionable texts into four rates according to their harmfulness and proposed the hierarchical text rating system for objectionable documents. Since the documents in the same category have similarities in used words, expressions and structure of the document, the text rating system, which uses a single classification model, has low accuracy. To solve this problem, we separate objectionable documents into several subsets by using their properties, and then classify the subsets hierarchically. The proposed system consists of three layers. In each layer, we select features using the chi-square statistics, and then the weight of the features, which is calculated by using the TF-IDF weighting scheme, is used as an input of the non-linear SVM classifier. By means of a hierarchical scheme using the different features and the different number of features in each layer, we can characterize the objectionability of documents more effectively and expect to improve the performance of the rating system. We compared the performance of the proposed system and performance of several text rating systems and experimental results show that the proposed system can archive an excellent classification performance.
A Hardware/Software Codesign for Image Processing in a Processor Based Embedded System for Vehicle DetectionHosun Moon, Sunghwan Moon, Youngbin Seo, Yongdeak Kim
Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 27-31, Feb. 2005
Keywords: Embedded System, ITS, Image Processing, Vehicle Detect
Show / Hide AbstractVehicle detector system based on image processing technology is a significant domain of ITS (Intelligent Transportation System) applications due to its advantages such as low installation cost and it does not obstruct traffic during the installation of vehicle detection systems on the road. In this paper, we propose architecture for vehicle detection by using image processing. The architecture consists of two main parts such as an image processing part, using high speed FPGA, decision and calculation part using CPU. The CPU part takes care of total system control and synthetic decision of vehicle detection. The FPGA part assumes charge of input and output image using video encoder and decoder, image classification and image memory control.
Yong-Hwan Lee, Sang-Burm Rhee
Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 32-35, Feb. 2005
Keywords: Image denoising, Noise Reduction Wavelet
Show / Hide AbstractImage denoising is basic work for image processing, analysis and computer vision. This paper proposes a novel algorithm based on wavelet threshold for image denoising, which is combined with the linear CLS (Constrained Least Squares) filtering and thresholding methods in the transform domain. We demonstrated through simulations with images contaminated by white Gaussian noise that our scheme exhibits better performance in both PSNR (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio) and visual effect.
Simulation of the Digital Image Processing Algorithm for the Coating Thickness Automatic Measurement of the TRISO-coated Fuel ParticleWoong-Ki Kim, Young-Woo Lee, Sung-Woong Ra
Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 36-40, Feb. 2005
Keywords: TRISO-coated Fuel Particle, Coating Thickness, X-ray CT, Computed Tomography, Filtered Backprojection, Automatic Measurement
Show / Hide AbstractTRISO (Tri-Isotropic)-coated fuel particle is widely applied due to its higher stability at high temperature and its efficient retention capability for fission products in the HTGR (high temperature gas-cooled reactor), one of the highly efficient Generation IV reactors. The typical balltype TRISO-coated fuel particle with a diameter of about 1 mm is composed of a nuclear fuel particle as a kernel and of outer coating layers. The coating layers consist of a buffer PyC, inner PyC, SiC, and outer PyC layer. In this study, a digital image processing algorithm is proposed to automatically measure the thickness of the coating layers. An FBP (filtered backprojection) algorithm was applied to reconstruct the CT image using virtual X-ray radiographic images for a simulated TRISO-coated fuel particle. The automatic measurement algorithm was developed to measure the coating thickness for the reconstructed image with noises. The boundary lines were automatically detected, then the coating thickness was circularly by the algorithm. The simulation result showed that the measurement error rate was less than 1.4%.
Purev Jaimai, Tsolmon Zundui, Altangerel Chagnaa, Cheol-Young Ock
Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 41-48, Feb. 2005
Keywords: Natural Language Processing, two-level morphological rule, Mongolian morphology, finite-state transducers, computational linguistics
Show / Hide AbstractThis paper presents the development of a morphological processor for the Mongolian language, based on the two-level morphological model which was introduced by Koskenniemi. The aim of the study is to provide Mongolian syntactic parsers with more effective information on word structure of Mongolian words. First hand written rules that are the core of this model are compiled into finite-state transducers by a rule tool. Output of the compiler was edited to clarity by hand whenever necessary. The rules file and lexicon presented in the paper describe the morphology of Mongolian nouns, adjectives and verbs. Although the rules illustrated are not sufficient for accounting all the processes of Mongolian lexical phonology, other necessary rules can be easily added when new words are supplemented to the lexicon file. The theoretical consideration of the paper is concluded in representation of the morphological phenomena of Mongolian by the general, language-independent framework of the two-level morphological model.
Giljae Lee, Jonguk Kong, Minsun Lee, Okhwan Byeon
Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 49-54, Feb. 2005
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Ubiquitous Sensor Networks, cluster-based routing protocol, energy-efficient routing
Show / Hide AbstractWith the recent advances in Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) technology, low cost and low power consumption wireless micro sensor nodes have become available. However, energy-efficient routing is one of the most important key technologies in wireless sensor networks as sensor nodes are highly energy-constrained. Therefore, many researchers have proposed routing protocols for sensor networks, especially cluster-based routing protocols, which have many advantages such as reduced control messages, bandwidth re-usability, and improved power control. Some protocols use information on the locations of sensor nodes to construct clusters efficiently. However, it is rare that all sensor nodes know their positions. In this article, we propose another cluster-based routing protocol for sensor networks. This protocol does not use information concerning the locations of sensor nodes, but uses the remaining energy of sensor networks and the desirable number of cluster heads according to the circumstances of the sensor networks. From performance simulation, we found that the proposed protocol shows better performance than the low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH).
Dong Chun Lee, Hong-Jin Kim, Jong Chan Lee, Yi Bing Lin
Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 55-61, Feb. 2005
Keywords: Distributed Location Management, LMN, Performance analysis, IMT-2000
Show / Hide AbstractIn this paper we propose a distributed location management scheme to reduce the bottleneck problem of HLR in Large Mobile Networks (LMN). Using analytical modeling and numerical simulation, we show that replicating location information is both appropriate and efficient for small mobile networks. Then, we extend the scheme in a hierarchical environment to reduce the overhead traffic and scale to LMN. In numerical results, we show the superiority of our scheme compared to the current IS-95 standard scheme in IMT-2000 networks.
A Performance Analysis Model of PC-based Software Router Supporting IPv6-IPv4 Translation for Residential GatewaySsang-Hee Seo, In-Yeup Kong
Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 62-69, Feb. 2005
Keywords: Performance analysis model, Software PC router, IPv6-IPv4 translator, M/G/1/K, MMPP-2/G/1/K, Residential Gateway
Show / Hide AbstractThis paper presents a queuing analysis model of a PC-based software router supporting IPv6-IPv4 translation for residential gateway. The proposed models are M/G/1/K or MMPP-2/G/1/K by arrival process of the software PC router. M/G/1/K is a model of normal traffic and MMPP-2/G/1/K is a model of burst traffic. In M/G/1/K, the arriving process is assumed to be a Poisson process, which is independent and identically distributed. In MMPP-2/G/1/K, the arriving process is assumed to be two-state Markov Modulated Poisson Process (MMPP) which is changed from one state to another state with intensity. The service time distribution is general distribution and the service discipline of the server is processor sharing. Also, the total number of packets that can be processed at one time is limited to K. We obtain performance metrics of PC-based software router for residential gateway such as system sojourn time, blocking probability and throughput based on the proposed model. Compared to other models, our model is simpler and it is easier to estimate model parameters. Validation results show that the model estimates the performance of the target system.
Hyojung Lee, Byungchul Kim, Youngmi Kwon
Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 70-74, Feb. 2005
Keywords: Sensor network, RBS, TDP, Time Synchronization
Show / Hide AbstractSensor networks have emerged as an interesting and important research area in the last few years. These networks require that time be synchronized more precisely than in traditional Internet applications. In this paper, we compared and analyzed the performance of the RBS and TDP mechanisms in the view of the number of generated messages and the synchronization accuracy. The reason that we chose the RBS ad the TDP mechanism to be compared is because the RBS is an innovative method to achieve the high accurate synchronization. And TDP is a new method taking over the NTP method which has been used widely in the Internet. We simulated the performance of two methods assuming the IEEE 802.11 CSMA/CA MAC. As for the number of nodes in the sensor networks, two situations of 25 (for the small size network) and 100 (for the large size network) nodes are used. In the aspect of the number of messages generated for the synchronization, TDP is far better than RBS. But, the synchronization accuracy of RBS is far higher than that of TDP. We can conclude that in a small size sensor networks requiring very high accuracy, such as an application of very high speed objects tracking in a confined space, the RBS is more proper than TDP even though the RBS may generate more traffic than TDP. But, in a wide range sensor networks with a large number of nodes, TDP is more realistic though the accuracy is somewhat worse than RBS because RBS may make so many synchronization messages, and then consume more energies at each node. So, two mechanisms may be used selectively according to the required environments, without saying that the one method is always better than the other.
Injung Kim, Younggyo Lee, Dongho Won
Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 75-78, Feb. 2005
Keywords: Risk Analysis, Vulnerability, Asset, Threat
Show / Hide AbstractAlthough many tests for stabilization of the software have been done, vulnerability test for a system run by combination of the software of various products has not been conducted enough. This has led to increased threats and vulnerability of system. Especially, web-based software system, which is public, has inherent possibility of exposure to attacks and is likely to be seriously damaged by an accident. Consequently, comprehensive and systematic test plans and techniques are required. Moreover, it is necessary to establish a procedure for managing and handling the results of vulnerability test. This paper proposes vulnerability test plans and designs for implementing automated tools, both of which can be complied with on web-based software systems.
Two-Dimensional Qualitative Asset Analysis Method based on Business Process-Oriented Asset EvaluationJung-Ho Eom, Seon-Ho Park, Tae-Kyung Kim, Tai-Myoung Chung
Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 79-85, Feb. 2005
Keywords: risk management, Risk Analysis, Asset analysis, 2-dimensional qualitative analysis
Show / Hide AbstractIn this paper, we dealt with substantial asset analysis methodology applied to twodimensional asset classification and qualitative evaluation method according to the business process. Most of the existent risk analysis methodology and tools presented classification by asset type and physical evaluation by a quantitative method. We focused our research on qualitative evaluation with 2-dimensional asset classification. It converts from quantitative asset value with purchase cost, recovery and exchange cost, etc. to qualitative evaluation considering specific factors related to the business process. In the first phase, we classified the IT assets into tangible and intangible assets, including human and information data asset, and evaluated their value. Then, we converted the quantitative asset value to the qualitative asset value using a conversion standard table. In the second phase, we reclassified the assets using 2-dimensional classification factors reflecting the business process, and applied weight to the first evaluation results. This method is to consider the organization characteristics, IT asset structure scheme and business process. Therefore, we can evaluate the concrete and substantial asset value corresponding to the organization business process, even if they are the same asset type.
Kiyoung Moon, Namje Park, Kyoil Chung, Sungwon Sohn, Jaecheol Ryou
Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 86-95, Feb. 2005
Keywords: Location-based service, Open LBS security, XKMS, XML Security, XML web services
Show / Hide AbstractLocation-based services or LBS refer to value-added service by processing information utilizing mobile user location. With the rapidly increasing wireless Internet subscribers and world LBS market, the various location based applications are introduced such as buddy finder, proximity and security services. As the killer application of the wireless Internet, the LBS have reconsidered technology about location determination technology, LBS middleware server for various application, and diverse contents processing technology. However, there are fears that this new wealth of personal location information will lead to new security risks, to the invasion of the privacy of people and organizations. This paper describes a novel security approach on open LBS service to validate certificate based on current LBS platform environment using XKMS (XML Key Management Specification) and SAML (Security Assertion Markup Language), XACML (extensible Access Control Markup Language) in XML security mechanism.
Dae-Hee Seo, Im-Yeong Lee
Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 96-101, Feb. 2005
Keywords: RFID, Service Availability, Secure Communication, Network Management Ubiquitous Computing
Show / Hide AbstractSpotlighted as an innovative information technology environment, ubiquitous computing has been actively researched on recently. Especially, domestic and global researches focus on the RFID system, which is being eyed to replace the existing bar-code system. As an essential technology for ubiquitous computing, the RFID system can be applied for various purposes. The security issues of the RFID system focus on how the low-priced tag type could have reasonable price competitiveness. The Auto-ID Center in the U.S. is spearheading the research on distribution service and omnidirectional security. As for Japan, the researches on omni-directional security and EPC application are necessary in securing the technology for ubiquitous computing with support from the Ministry of Public Management Home Affairs, Posts, and Telecommunication. In this paper, a method of ensuring the availability of the RFID system service will be presented based on the ubiquitous computing environment with the existing omni-directional security and user-friendly interface. While the existing researches focus on the RF reader system and tag-based security, this paper's suggestion also considers the availability of a service to suggest ways of increasing the practical usage of a low-priced RF tag.
Hyung Moo Kim, Beob Kyun Kim, Kang Soo You
Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 102-106, Feb. 2005
Keywords: LST, NDVI, Correlation Analysis, Landsat ETM+
Show / Hide AbstractAs long as the effective contributions of satellite images in the continuous monitoring of the wide area and long range of time period, Landsat TM and Landsat ETM+ satellite images are surveyed. After quantization and classification of the deviations between TM and ETM+ images based on approved thresholds such as gains and biases or offsets, a correlation analysis method for the compared calibration is suggested in this paper. Four time points of raster data for 15 years of the highest group of land surface temperature and the lowest group of vegetation of the Kunsan city Chollabuk_do Korea located beneath the Yellow sea coast, are observed and analyzed their correlations for the change detection of urban land cover. This experiment based on proposed algorithm detected strong and proportional correlation relationship between the highest group of land surface temperature and the lowest group of vegetation index which exceeded R=(+)0.9478, so the proposed Correlation Analysis Model between the highest group of land surface temperature and the lowest group of vegetation index will be able to give proof an effective suitability to the land cover change detection and monitoring.
YoungMee Choi, MoonWon Choo, SeongAh Chin
Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 107-111, Feb. 2005
Keywords: Edutainment, pedagogical agents, emotion generation, student modeling, Intelligent Tutoring Systems, dynamic Bayesian networks
Show / Hide AbstractWhen a pedagogical agent system aims to provide students with interactive help, it needs to know what knowledge the student has and what goals the student is currently trying to achieve. That is, it must do both assessment and plan recognition. These modeling tasks involve a high level of uncertainty when students are allowed to follow various lines of reasoning and are not required to show all their reasoning explicitly. In this paper, the student model for interactive edutainment applications is proposed. This model is based on Bayesian Networks to expose constructs and parameters of rules and propositions pertaining to game and problem solving activities. This student model could be utilized as the emotion generation model for student and agent as well.