The Journal of Information Processing Systems
(JIPS) is the official international journal of the Korea Information Processing Society.
As information processing systems are progressing at a rapid pace, the Korea Information Processing Society is committed to providing researchers and other professionals
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ISSN: 1976-913X (Print), ISSN: 2092-805X (Online)
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Journal of Information Processing Systems, Vol. 13, No.5, 2017
The Journal of Information Processing Systems (JIPS) publishes a wide range of topics related to a wide variety of advanced information and communication technologies, including systems, networks, architectures, algorithms, applications, and security. JIPS is the official international journal published by the Korea Information Processing Society and is the world's leading academic journal indexed by ESCI, SCOPUS, EI COMPENDEX, DOI, DBLP, EBSCO, Google Scholar, and CrossRef. The purpose of JIPS is to provide an outstanding, influential forum where researchers and experts gather to promote, share, and discuss crucial research issues and developments. The published theoretical and practical articles contribute to the relevant research area by presenting cutting-edge techniques related to information processing including new theories, approaches, concepts, analysis, functional experience reports, implementations, and applications. Topics covered in this journal include, but are not limited to, computer systems and theory, multimedia systems and graphics, communication systems and security, software systems, and applications.
For the autoencoder (AE) implemented as a construction component, this paper uses the method of greedy layer-by-layer pre-training without supervision to construct the stacked autoencoder (SAE) to extract the abstract features of the original input data, which is regarded as the input of the logistic regression (LR) model, after which the click-through rate (CTR) of the user to the advertisement under the contextual environment can be obtained. These experiments show that, compared with the usual logistic regression model and support vector regression model used in the field of predicting the advertising CTR in the industry, the SAE-LR model has a relatively large promotion in the AUC value. Based on the improvement of accuracy of advertising CTR prediction, the enterprises can accurately understand and have cognition for the needs of their customers, which promotes the multi-path development with high efficiency and low cost under the condition of internet finance.
For dual-hop multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) decode-and-forward relaying systems, we propose a selective relaying scheme that uses orthogonal space-time block code (OSTBC) and transmit antenna selection with maximal-ratio combining (TAS/MRC) or vice versa at the first and second hops, respectively. The aim is to achieve an asymptotically identical performance to the dual-hop relaying system with only TAS/MRC, while requiring lower feedback overhead. In particular, we give the selection criteria based on the antenna configurations and the average channel powers for the first and second hops, assuming Rayleigh fading channels. Also, the numerical results are shown for the outage performance comparison between the dual-hop DF relaying systems with the proposed scheme, only TAS/MRC, and only OSTBC.
In software systems, it has been observed that a fault is often caused by an interaction between a small number of input parameters. Even for moderately sized software systems, exhaustive testing is practically impossible to achieve. This is either due to time or cost constraints. Combinatorial (t-way) testing provides a technique to select a subset of exhaustive test cases covering all of the t-way interactions, without much of a loss to the fault detection capability. In this paper, an approach is proposed to generate 2-way (pairwise) test sets using genetic algorithms. The performance of the algorithm is improved by creating an initial solution using the overlap coefficient (a similarity matrix). Two mutation strategies have also been modified to improve their efficiency. Furthermore, the mutation operator is improved by using a combination of three mutation strategies. A comparative survey of the techniques to generate t-way test sets using genetic algorithms was also conducted. It has been shown experimentally that the proposed approach generates faster results by achieving higher percentage coverage in a fewer number of generations. Additionally, the size of the mixed covering arrays was reduced in one of the six benchmark problems examined.
This paper aims to extract an ObjectProperty-UsageMethod relation, in particular the HerbalMedicinalProperty- UsageMethod relation of the herb-plant object, as a semantic relation between two related sets, a herbal- medicinal-property concept set and a usage-method concept set from several web documents. This HerbalMedicinalProperty-UsageMethod relation benefits people by providing an alternative treatment/solution knowledge to health problems. The research includes three main problems: how to determine EDU (where EDU is an elementary discourse unit or a simple sentence/clause) with a medicinal-property/usage-method concept; how to determine the usage-method boundary; and how to determine the HerbalMedicinalProperty- UsageMethod relation between the two related sets. We propose using N-Word-Co on the verb phrase with the medicinal-property/usage-method concept to solve the first and second problems where the N-Word-Co size is determined by the learning of maximum entropy, support vector machine, and nai?ve Bayes. We also apply nai?ve Bayes to solve the third problem of determining the HerbalMedicinalProperty-UsageMethod relation with N-Word-Co elements as features. The research results can provide high precision in the HerbalMedicinalProperty-UsageMethod relation extraction.
A variety of medical service applications in the field of the Internet of Things (IoT) are being studied. Segmentation is important to identify meaningful regions in images and is also required in 3D images. Previous methods have been based on gray value and shape. The Visible Korean dataset consists of serially sectioned high-resolution color images. Unlike computed tomography or magnetic resonance images, automatic segmentation of color images is difficult because detecting an object’s boundaries in colored images is very difficult compared to grayscale images. Therefore, skilled anatomists usually segment color images manually or semi-automatically. We present an out-of-core 3D segmentation method for large-scale image datasets. Our method can segment significant regions in the coronal and sagittal planes, as well as the axial plane, to produce a 3D image. Our system verifies the result interactively with a multi-planar reconstruction view and a 3D view. Our system can be used to train unskilled anatomists and medical students. It is also possible for a skilled anatomist to segment an image remotely since it is difficult to transfer such large amounts of data.
Speech recognition is one of the fascinating fields in the area of Computer science. Accuracy of speech recognition system may reduce due to the presence of noise present in speech signal. Therefore noise removal is an essential step in Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system and this paper proposes a new technique called combined thresholding for noise removal. Feature extraction is process of converting acoustic signal into most valuable set of parameters. This paper also concentrates on improving Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) features by introducing Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform (DWPT) in the place of Discrete Fourier Transformation (DFT) block to provide an efficient signal analysis. The feature vector is varied in size, for choosing the correct length of feature vector Self Organizing Map (SOM) is used. As a single classifier does not provide enough accuracy, so this research proposes an Ensemble Support Vector Machine (ESVM) classifier where the fixed length feature vector from SOM is given as input, termed as ESVM_SOM. The experimental results showed that the proposed methods provide better results than the existing methods.
The satisfiability problem is always a core problem in artificial intelligence (AI). And how to improve the efficiency of algorithms solving the satisfiability problem is widely concerned. Algorithm IER (Improved Extension Rule) is based on extension rule. The number of atoms and the number of clauses affect the efficiency of the algorithm IER. DPLL rules are helpful to reduce these numbers. Then a complete algorithm CIER based on splitting rule and extension rule is proposed in this paper in order to improve the efficiency. At first, the algorithm CIER (Complete Improved Extension Rule) reduces the scale of a clause set with DPLL rules. Then, the clause set is split into a group of small clause sets. In the end, the satisfiability of the clause set is got from these small clause sets’. A strategy MOAMD (maximum occurrences and maximum difference) for the algorithm CIER is given. With this strategy, a better arrangement of atoms could be got. This arrangement could make the number of small clause sets fewer and the scale of these sets smaller. So, the algorithm CIER will be more efficient.
Many real-world applications information are organized and represented with graph structure which is often used for representing various ubiquitous networks, such as World Wide Web, social networks, and protein- protein interactive networks. In particular, similarity evaluation between graphs is a challenging issue in many fields such as graph searching, pattern discovery, neuroscience, chemical compounds exploration and so forth. There exist some algorithms which are based on vertices or edges properties, are proposed for addressing this issue. However, these algorithms do not take both vertices and edges similarities into account. Towards this end, this paper pioneers a novel approach for similarity evaluation between graphs based on formal concept analysis. The feature of this approach is able to characterize the relationships between nodes and further reveal the similarity between graphs. Therefore, the highlight of our approach is to take vertices and edges into account simultaneously. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using a case study for validating the effectiveness of the proposed approach on detecting and measuring the similarity between graphs.
In the past decades, various image regularization methods have been introduced. Among them, total variation model has drawn much attention for the reason of its low computational complexity and well-understood mathematical behavior. However, regularization parameter estimation of total variation model is still an open problem. To deal with this problem, a novel adaptive regularization parameter selection scheme is proposed in this paper, by means of using the local spectral response, which has the capability of locally selecting the regularization parameters in a content-aware way and therefore adaptively adjusting the weights between the two terms of the total variation model. Experiment results on simulated and real noisy image show the good performance of our proposed method, in visual improvement and peak signal to noise ratio value.
Image restoration has been carried out by texture synthesis mostly for large regions and inpainting algorithms for small cracks in images. In this paper, we propose a new approach that allows for the simultaneous fill-in of different structures and textures by processing in a wavelet domain. A combination of structure inpainting and patch-based texture synthesis is carried out, which is known as patch-based inpainting, for filling and updating the target region. The wavelet transform is used for its very good multiresolution capabilities. The proposed algorithm uses the wavelet domain subbands to resolve the structure and texture components in smooth approximation and high frequency structural details. The subbands are processed separately by the prioritized patch-based inpainting with isophote energy driven texture synthesis at the core. The algorithm automatically estimates the wavelet coefficients of the target regions of various subbands using optimized patches from the surrounding DWT coefficients. The suggested performance improvement drastically improves execution speed over the existing algorithm. The proposed patch optimization strategy improves the quality of the fill. The fill-in is done with higher priority to structures and isophotes arriving at target boundaries. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated with natural and textured images with varying textural complexions.
Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are crucial in this overwhelming increase of attacks on the computing infrastructure. It intelligently detects malicious and predicts future attack patterns based on the classification analysis using machine learning and data mining techniques. This paper is devoted to thoroughly evaluate classifier ensembles for IDSs in IEEE 802.11 wireless network. Two ensemble techniques, i.e. voting and stacking are employed to combine the three base classifiers, i.e. decision tree (DT), random forest (RF), and support vector machine (SVM). We use area under ROC curve (AUC) value as a performance metric. Finally, we conduct two statistical significance tests to evaluate the performance differences among classifiers.
The pitch tracking of music has been researched for several decades. Several possible improvements are available for creating a good t-distribution, using the instantaneous robust algorithm for pitch tracking framework to perfectly detect pitch. This article shows how to detect the pitch of music utilizing an improved detection method which applies a statistical method; this approach uses a pitch track, or a sequence of frequency bin numbers. This sequence is used to create an index that offers useful features for comparing similar songs. The pitch frequency spectrum is extracted using a modified instantaneous robust algorithm for pitch tracking (IRAPT) as a base combined with the statistical method. The pitch detection algorithm was implemented, and the percentage of performance matching in Thai classical music was assessed in order to test the accuracy of the algorithm. We used the longest common subsequence to compare the similarities in pitch sequence alignments in the music. The experimental results of this research show that the accuracy of retrieval of Thai classical music using the t-distribution of instantaneous robust algorithm for pitch tracking (t-IRAPT) is 99.01%, and is in the top five ranking, with the shortest query sample being five seconds long.
In this paper, an interference aware distributed multi-channel MAC (IDMMAC) protocol is proposed for wireless sensor and actor networks (WSANs). The WSAN consists of a huge number of sensors and ample amount of actors. Hence, in the IDMMAC protocol a lightweight channel selection mechanism is proposed to enhance the sensor's lifetime. The IDMMAC protocol divides the beacon interval into two phases (i.e., the ad- hoc traffic indication message (ATIM) window phase and data transmission phase). When a sensor wants to transmit event information to the actor, it negotiates the maximum packet reception ratio (PRR) and the capacity channel in the ATIM window with its 1-hop sensors. The channel negotiation takes place via a control channel. To improve the packet delivery ratio of the IDMMAC protocol, each actor selects a backup cluster head (BCH) from its cluster members. The BCH is elected based on its residual energy and node degree. The BCH selection phase takes place whenever an actor wants to perform actions in the event area or it leaves the cluster to help a neighbor actor. Furthermore, an interference and throughput aware multi- channel MAC protocol is also proposed for actor-actor coordination. An actor selects a minimum interference and maximum throughput channel among the available channels to communicate with the destination actor. The performance of the proposed IDMMAC protocol is analyzed using standard network parameters, such as packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, and energy dissipation, in the network. The obtained simulation results indicate that the IDMMAC protocol performs well compared to the existing MAC protocols.
A new medical materials scheduling system and its modeling method for the complex rescue are presented. Different from other similar system, first both the BeiDou Satellite Communication System (BSCS) and the Special Fiber-optic Communication Network (SFCN) are used to collect the rescue requirements and the location information of disaster areas. Then all these messages will be displayed in a special medical software terminal. After that the bipartite graph models are utilized to compute the optimal scheduling of medical materials. Finally, all these results will be transmitted back by the BSCS and the SFCN again to implement a fast guidance of medical rescue. The sole drug scheduling issue, the multiple drugs scheduling issue, and the backup-scheme selection issue are all utilized: the Kuhn-Munkres algorithm is used to realize the optimal matching of sole drug scheduling issue, the spectral clustering-based method is employed to calculate the optimal distribution of multiple drugs scheduling issue, and the similarity metric of neighboring matrix is utilized to realize the estimation of backup-scheme selection issue of medical materials. Many simulation analysis experiments and applications have proved the correctness of proposed technique and system.
As technologies related to sensor network are currently emerging and the use of GeoSensor is increasing along with the development of Internet of Things (IoT) technology, spatial query processing systems to efficiently process spatial sensor data are being actively studied. However, existing spatial query processing systems do not support a spatial-temporal data type and a spatial-temporal operator for processing spatial- temporal sensor data. Therefore, they are inadequate for processing spatial-temporal sensor data like GeoSensor. Accordingly, this paper developed a spatial-temporal query processing system, for efficient spatial-temporal query processing of spatial-temporal sensor data in a sensor network. Lastly, this paper verified the utility of System through a scenario, and proved that this system’s performance is better than existing systems through performance assessment of performance time and memory usage.
Related to the maximum vector problem, a skyline query is to discover dominating tuples from a set of tuples, where each defines an object (such as a hotel) in several dimensions (such as the price and the distance to the beach). A tuple, an instance of an object, dominates another tuple if it is equally good or better in all dimensions and better in at least one dimension. Traditionally, skyline queries are defined upon single- instance data or upon objects each of which is associated with an instance. However, in some cases, an object is not associated with a single instance but rather by multiple instances. For example, on a review website, many users assign scores to a product or a service, and a user’s score is an instance of the object representing the product or the service. Such data is an example of multi-instance data. Unlike most (if not all) others considering the traditional setting, we consider skyline queries defined upon multi-instance data. We define the dominance calculation and propose an algorithm to reduce its computational cost. We use synthetic and real data to evaluate the proposed methods, and the results demonstrate their utility.
This paper presents a scalable multiple camera collaboration strategy for active tracking applications in large areas. The proposed approach is based on distributed mechanism but emulates the master-slave mechanism. The master and slave cameras are not designated but adaptively determined depending on the object dynamic and density distribution. Moreover, the number of cameras emulating the master is not fixed. The collaboration among the cameras utilizes global and local sectors in which the visual correspondences among different cameras are determined. The proposed method combines the local information to construct the global information for emulating the master-slave operations. Based on the global information, the load balancing of active tracking operations is performed to maximize active tracking coverage of the highly dynamic objects. The dynamics of all objects visible in the local camera views are estimated for effective coverage scheduling of the cameras. The active tracking synchronization timing information is chosen to maximize the overall monitoring time for general surveillance operations while minimizing the active tracking miss. The real-time simulation result demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method
Wireless sensor networks for forest monitoring are typically deployed in fields in which manual intervention cannot be easily accessed. An interesting approach to extending the lifetime of sensor nodes is the use of energy harvested from the environment. Design constraints are application-dependent and based on the monitored environment in which the energy harvesting takes place. To reduce energy consumption, we designed a power management scheme that combines dynamic duty cycle scheduling at the network layer to plan node duty time. The dynamic duty cycle scheduling is realized based on a tier structure in which the network is concentrically organized around the sink node. In addition, the multi-paths preserved in the tier structure can be used to deliver residual packets when a path failure occurs. Experimental results show that the proposed method has a better performance.
In this paper, data hiding algorithm using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Arnold Transform is proposed. The secret data is scrambled using Arnold Transform to make it secure. Wavelet subbands of a cover image are obtained using DWT. The scrambled secret data is embedded into significant wavelet coefficients of subbands of a cover image. The proposed algorithm is robust to a variety of attacks like JPEG and JPEG2000 compression, image cropping and median filtering. Experimental results show that the PSNR of the composite image is 1.05 dB higher than the PSNR of existing algorithms and capacity is 25% higher than the capacity of existing algorithms.
A prototype selection method chooses a small set of training points from a whole set of class data. As the data size increases, the selected prototypes play a significant role in covering class regions and learning a discriminate rule. This paper discusses the methods for selecting prototypes in a classification framework. We formulate a prototype selection problem into a set covering optimization problem in which the sets are composed with distance metric and predefined classes. The formulation of our problem makes us draw attention only to prototypes per class, not considering the other class points. A training point becomes a prototype by checking the number of neighbors and whether it is preselected. In this setting, we propose a greedy algorithm which chooses the most relevant points for preserving the class dominant regions. The proposed method is simple to implement, does not have parameters to adapt, and achieves better or comparable results on both artificial and real-world problems.
Dynamic thermal rating (DTR) system is an effective method to improve the capacity of existing overhead line. According to the methodology based on CIGRE (International Council on Large Electric systems) standard, ampacity values under steady-state heating balance can be calculated from ambient environmental conditions. In this study, simulation analysis of relations between parameters and ampacity is described as functional dependence, which can provide an effective basis for the design and research of overhead transmission lines. The simulation of ampacity variation in different rating scales is described in this paper, which are determined from real-time meteorological data and conductor state parameters. To test the performance of DTR in different rating scales, capacity improvement and risk level are presented. And the experimental results show that the capacity of transmission line by using DTR has significant improvement, with low probability of risk. The information of this study has an important reference value to the operation management of power grid
In this paper, a texture feature extraction method using local energy and local correlation of Gabor transformed images is proposed and applied to an image retrieval system. The Gabor wavelet is known to be similar to the response of the human visual system. The outputs of the Gabor transformation are robust to variants of object size and illumination. Due to such advantages, it has been actively studied in various fields such as image retrieval, classification, analysis, etc. In this paper, in order to fully exploit the superior aspects of Gabor wavelet, local energy and local correlation features are extracted from Gabor transformed images and then applied to an image retrieval system. Some experiments are conducted to compare the performance of the proposed method with those of the conventional Gabor method and the popular rotation-invariant uniform local binary pattern (RULBP) method in terms of precision vs recall. The Mahalanobis distance is used to measure the similarity between a query image and a database (DB) image. Experimental results for Corel DB and VisTex DB show that the proposed method is superior to the conventional Gabor method. The proposed method also yields precision and recall 6.58% and 3.66% higher on average in Corel DB, respectively, and 4.87% and 3.37% higher on average in VisTex DB, respectively, than the popular RULBP method.
In this paper, we analyze a recently proposed semi-fragile watermarking scheme based on local binary pattern (LBP) operators, and note that it has a fundamental flaw in the design. In this work, a binary watermark is embedded into image blocks by modifying the neighborhood pixels according to the LBP pattern. However, different image blocks might have the same LBP pattern, which can lead to false detection in watermark extraction process. In other words, one can modify the host image intentionally without affecting its watermark message. In addition, there is no encryption process before watermark embedding, which brings another potential security problem. To illustrate its weakness, two special copy-paste attacks are proposed in this paper, and several experiments are conducted to prove the effectiveness of these attacks. To solve these problems, an improved semi-fragile watermarking based on LBP operators is presented. In watermark embedding process, the central pixel value of each block is taken into account and Arnold transform is adopted to guarantee the security of watermark. Experimental results show that the improved watermarking scheme can overcome the above defects and locate the tampered region effectively.
For text categorization task, distinctive text features selection is important due to feature space high dimensionality. It is important to decrease the feature space dimension to decrease processing time and increase accuracy. In the current study, for text categorization task, we introduce a novel statistical feature selection approach. This approach measures the term distribution in all collection documents, the term distribution in a certain category and the term distribution in a certain class relative to other classes. The proposed method results show its superiority over the traditional feature selection methods.
Mobility arises naturally in the Internet of Things networks, since the location of mobile objects, e.g., mobile agents, mobile software, mobile things, or users with wireless hardware, changes as they move. Tracking their current location is essential to mobile computing. To overcome the scalability problem, hierarchical architectures of location databases have been proposed. When location updates and lookups for mobile objects are localized, these architectures become effective. However, the network signaling costs and the execution number of database operations increase particularly when the scale of the architectures and the numbers of databases becomes large to accommodate a great number of objects. This disadvantage can be alleviated by a location caching scheme which exploits the spatial and temporal locality in location lookup. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical location caching scheme, which acclimates the existing location caching scheme to a hierarchical architecture of location databases. The performance analysis indicates that the adjustment of such thresholds has an impact on cost reduction in the proposed scheme.
The recent advent of increasingly affordable and powerful 3D scanning devices capable of capturing high resolution range data about real-world objects and environments has fueled research into effective 3D surface reconstruction techniques for rendering the raw point cloud data produced by many of these devices into a form that would make it usable in a variety of application domains. This paper, therefore, provides an overview of the existing literature on surface reconstruction from 3D point clouds. It explains some of the basic surface reconstruction concepts, describes the various factors used to evaluate surface reconstruction methods, highlights some commonly encountered issues in dealing with the raw 3D point cloud data and delineates the tradeoffs between data resolution/accuracy and processing speed. It also categorizes the various techniques for this task and briefly analyzes their empirical evaluation results demarcating their advantages and disadvantages. The paper concludes with a cross-comparison of methods which have been evaluated on the same benchmark data sets along with a discussion of the overall trends reported in the literature. The objective is to provide an overview of the state of the art on surface reconstruction from point cloud data in order to facilitate and inspire further research in this area.
Gene identification is at the center of genomic studies. Although the first phase of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has been claimed to be complete, the annotation of the functional elements is far from being so. Computational methods in gene identification continue to play important roles in this area and other relevant issues. So far, a lot of work has been performed on this area, and a plethora of computational methods and avenues have been developed. Many review papers have summarized these methods and other related work. However, most of them focus on the methodologies from a particular aspect or perspective. Different from these existing bodies of research, this paper aims to comprehensively summarize the mainstream computational methods in gene identification and tries to provide a short but concise technical reference for future studies. Moreover, this review sheds light on the emerging trends and cutting-edge techniques that are believed to be capable of leading the research on this field in the future.
In this paper we present some research results on computing intensive applications using modern high performance architectures and from the perspective of high computational needs. Computing intensive applications are an important family of applications in distributed computing domain. They have been object of study using different distributed computing paradigms and infrastructures. Such applications distinguish for their demanding needs for CPU computing, independently of the amount of data associated with the problem instance. Among computing intensive applications, there are applications based on simulations, aiming to maximize system resources for processing large computations for simulation. In this research work, we consider an application that simulates scheduling and resource allocation in a Grid computing system using Genetic Algorithms. In such application, a rather large number of simulations is needed to extract meaningful statistical results about the behavior of the simulation results. We study the performance of Oracle Grid Engine for such application running in a Cluster of high computing capacities. Several scenarios were generated to measure the response time and queuing time under different workloads and number of nodes in the cluster.
The accuracy of training-based activity recognition depends on the training procedure and the extent to which the training dataset comprehensively represents the activity and its varieties. Additionally, training incurs substantial cost and effort in the process of collecting training data. To address these limitations, we have developed a training-free activity recognition approach based on a fuzzy logic algorithm that utilizes a generic activity model and an associated activity semantic knowledge. The approach is validated through experimentation with real activity datasets. Results show that the fuzzy logic based algorithms exhibit comparable or better accuracy than other trainingbased approaches.
Recent technological advances provide the opportunity to use large amounts of multimedia data from a multitude of sensors with different modalities (e.g., video, text) for the detection and characterization of criminal activity. Their integration can compensate for sensor and modality deficiencies by using data from other available sensors and modalities. However, building such an integrated system at the scale of neighborhood and cities is challenging due to the large amount of data to be considered and the need to ensure a short response time to potential criminal activity. In this paper, we present a system that enables multi-modal data collection at scale and automates the detection of events of interest for the surveillance and reconnaissance of criminal activity. The proposed system showcases novel analytical tools that fuse multimedia data streams to automatically detect and identify specific criminal events and activities. More specifically, the system detects and analyzes series of incidents (an incident is an occurrence or artifact relevant to a criminal activity extracted from a single media stream) in the spatiotemporal domain to extract events (actual instances of criminal events) while cross-referencing multimodal media streams and incidents in time and space to provide a comprehensive view to a human operator while avoiding information overload. We present several case studies that demonstrate how the proposed system can provide law enforcement personnel with forensic and real time tools to identify and track potential criminal activity.
The confinement problem was first noted four decades ago. Since then, a huge amount of efforts have been spent on defining and mitigating the problem. The evolution of technologies from traditional operating systems to mobile and cloud computing brings about new security challenges. It is perhaps timely that we review the work that has been done. We discuss the foundational principles from classical works, as well as the efforts towards solving the confinement problem in three domains: operating systems, mobile computing, and cloud computing. While common issues exist across all three domains, unique challenges arise for each of them, which we discuss.
Since a social network by definition is so diverse, the problem of estimating the preferences of its users is becoming increasingly essential for personalized applications, which range from service recommender systems to the targeted advertising of services. However, unlike traditional estimation problems where the underlying target distribution is stationary; estimating a user"'"s interests typically involves non-stationary distributions. The consequent time varying nature of the distribution to be tracked imposes stringent constraints on the "unlearning” capabilities of the estimator used. Therefore, resorting to strong estimators that converge with a probability of 1 is inefficient since they rely on the assumption that the distribution of the user"'"s preferences is stationary. In this vein, we propose to use a family of stochastic-learning based Weak estimators for learning and tracking a user"'"s time varying interests. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed paradigm outperforms some of the traditional legacy approaches that represent the state-of-the-art technology.
The most important criterion for achieving the maximum performance in a wireless mesh network (WMN) is to limit the interference within the network. For this purpose, especially in a multi-radio network, the best option is to use non-overlapping channels among different radios within the same interference range. Previous works that have considered non-overlapping channels in IEEE 802.11a as the basis for performance optimization, have considered the link quality across all channels to be uniform. In this paper, we present a measurement-based study of link quality across all channels in an IEEE 802.11a-based indoor WMN test bed. Our results show that the generalized assumption of uniform performance across all channels does not hold good in practice for an indoor environment and signal quality depends on the geometry around the me routers.
This paper describes different aspects of a typical RFID implementation. Section 1 provides a brief overview of the concept of Automatic Identification and compares the use of different technologies while Section 2 describes the basic components of a typical RFID system. Section 3 and Section 4 deal with the detailed specifications of RFID transponders and RFID interrogators respectively. Section 5 highlights different RFID standards and protocols and Section 6 enumerates the wide variety of applications where RFID systems are known to have made a positive improvement. Section 7 deals with privacy issues concerning the use of RFIDs and Section 8 describes common RFID system vulnerabilities. Section 9 covers a variety of RFID security issues, followed by a detailed listing of countermeasures and precautions in Section 10.
Granular Computing has emerged as a unified and coherent framework of designing, processing, and interpretation of information granules. Information granules are formalized within various frameworks such as sets (interval mathematics), fuzzy sets, rough sets, shadowed sets, probabilities (probability density functions), to name several the most visible approaches. In spite of the apparent diversity of the existing formalisms, there are some underlying commonalities articulated in terms of the fundamentals, algorithmic developments and ensuing application domains. In this study, we introduce two pivotal concepts: a principle of justifiable granularity and a method of an optimal information allocation where information granularity is regarded as an important design asset. We show that these two concepts are relevant to various formal setups of information granularity and offer constructs supporting the design of information granules and their processing. A suite of applied studies is focused on knowledge management in which case we identify several key categories of schemes present there.
In earlier days, most of the data carried on communication networks was textual data requiring limited bandwidth. With the rise of multimedia and network technologies, the bandwidth requirements of data have increased considerably. If a network link at any time is not able to meet the minimum bandwidth requirement of data, data transmission at that path becomes difficult, which leads to network congestion. This causes delay in data transmission and might also lead to packet drops in the network. The retransmission of these lost packets would aggravate the situation and jam the network. In this paper, we aim at providing a solution to the problem of network congestion in mobile ad hoc networks [1, 2] by designing a protocol that performs routing intelligently and minimizes the delay in data transmission. Our Objective is to move the traffic away from the shortest path obtained by a suitable shortest path calculation algorithm to a less congested path so as to minimize the number of packet drops during data transmission and to avoid unnecessary delay. For this we have proposed a protocol named as Congestion Aware Selection Of Path With Efficient Routing (CASPER). Here, a router runs the shortest path algorithm after pruning those links that violate a given set of constraints. The proposed protocol has been compared with two link state protocols namely, OSPF [3, 4] and OLSR [5, 6, 7, 8].The results achieved show that our protocol performs better in terms of network throughput and transmission delay in case of bulky data transmission.
Vehicular networks are a promising application of mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we introduce an efficient broadcast technique, called CB-S (Cell Broadcast for Streets), for vehicular networks with occlusions such as skyscrapers. In this environment, the road network is fragmented into cells such that nodes in a cell can communicate with any node within a two cell distance. Each mobile node is equipped with a GPS (Global Positioning System) unit and a map of the cells. The cell map has information about the cells including their identifier and the coordinates of the upper-right and lower-left corner of each cell. CB-S has the following desirable property. Broadcast of a message is performed by rebroadcasting the message from every other cell in the terrain. This characteristic allows CB-S to achieve an efficient performance. Our simulation results indicate that messages always reach all nodes in the wireless network. This perfect coverage is achieved with minimal overhead. That is, CB-S uses a low number of nodes to disseminate the data packets as quickly as probabilistically possible. This efficiency gives it the advantage of low delay. To show these benefits, we give simulations results to compare CB-S with four other broadcast techniques. In practice, CB-S can be used for information dissemination, or to reduce the high cost of destination discovery in routing protocols. By also specify the radius of affected zone, CB-S is also more efficient when broadcast to a subset of the nodes is desirable.
Cryptographic hash functions reduce inputs of arbitrary or very large length to a short string of fixed length. All hash function designs start from a compression function with fixed length inputs. The compression function itself is designed from scratch, or derived from a block cipher or a permutation. The most common procedure to extend the domain of a compression function in order to obtain a hash function is a simple linear iteration; however, some variants use multiple iterations or a tree structure that allows for parallelism. This paper presents a survey of 17 extenders in the literature. It considers the natural question whether these preserve the security properties of the compression function, and more in particular collision resistance, second preimage resistance, preimage resistance and the pseudo-random oracle property.
This paper proposes a novel reversible data hiding scheme based on a Vector Quantization (VQ) codebook. The proposed scheme uses the principle component analysis (PCA) algorithm to sort the codebook and to find two similar codewords of an image block. According to the secret to be embedded and the difference between those two similar codewords, the original image block is transformed into a difference number table. Finally, this table is compressed by entropy coding and sent to the receiver. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can achieve greater hiding capacity, about five bits per index, with an acceptable bit rate. At the receiver end, after the compressed code has been decoded, the image can be recovered to a VQ compressed image.
The interconnection of mobile devices in urban environments can open up a lot of vistas for collaboration and content-based services. This will require setting up of a network in an urban environment which not only provides the necessary services to the user but also ensures that the network is secure and energy efficient. In this paper, we propose a secure, energy efficient dynamic routing protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks in urban environments. A decision is made by every node based on various parameters like longevity, distance, battery power which measure the node and link quality to decide the next hop in the route. This ensures that the total load is distributed evenly while conserving the energy of battery-constrained nodes. The protocol also maintains a trusted population for each node through Dynamic Trust Factor (DTF) which ensures secure communication in the environment by gradually isolating the malicious nodes. The results obtained show that the proposed protocol when compared with another energy efficient protocol (MMBCR) and a widely accepted protocol (DSR) gives far better results in terms of energy efficiency. Similarly, it also outdoes a secure protocol (QDV) when it comes to detecting malicious nodes in the network.
The trend of Next Generation Networks’ (NGN) evolution is towards providing multiple and multimedia services to users through ubiquitous networks. The aim of IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is to integrate mobile communication networks and computer networks. The IMS plays an important role in NGN services, which can be achieved by heterogeneous networks and different access technologies. IMS can be used to manage all service related issues such as Quality of Service (QoS), Charging, Access Control, User and Services Management. Nowadays, internet technology is changing with each passing day. New technologies yield new impact to IMS. In this paper, we perform a survey of IMS and discuss the different impacts of new technologies on IMS such as P2P, SCIM, Web Service and its security issues.
Due to the convergence of voice, data, and video, today’s telecom operators are facing the complexity of service and network management to offer differentiated value-added services that meet customer expectations. Without the operations support of well-developed Business Support System/Operations Support System (BSS/OSS), it is difficult to timely and effectively provide competitive services upon customer request. In this paper, a suite of NGOSS-based Telecom OSS (TOSS) is developed for the support of fulfillment and assurance operations of telecom services and IT services. Four OSS groups, TOSS-P (intelligent service provisioning), TOSS-N (integrated large-scale network management), TOSS-T (trouble handling and resolution), and TOSS-Q (end-to-end service quality management), are organized and integrated following the standard telecom operation processes (i.e., eTOM). We use IPTV and IP-VPN operation scenarios to show how these OSS groups co-work to support daily business operations with the benefits of cost reduction and revenue acceleration.
By providing ubiquitous Internet connectivity, wireless networks offer more convenient ways for users to surf the Internet. However, wireless networks encounter more technological challenges than wired networks, such as bandwidth, security problems, and handoff latency. Thus, this paper proposes new technologies to solve these problems. First, a Security Access Gateway (SAG) is proposed to solve the security issue. Originally, mobile terminals were unable to process high security calculations because of their low calculating power. SAG not only offers high calculating power to encrypt the encryption demand of SAG¡¯s domain, but also helps mobile terminals to establish a multiple safety tunnel to maintain a secure domain. Second, Robust Header Compression (RoHC) technology is adopted to increase the utilization of bandwidth. Instead of Access Point (AP), Access Gateway (AG) is used to deal with the packet header compression and de-compression from the wireless end. AG¡¯s high calculating power is able to reduce the load on AP. In the original architecture, AP has to deal with a large number of demands by header compression/de-compression from mobile terminals. Eventually, wireless networks must offer users ¡°Mobility¡± and ¡°Roaming¡±. For wireless networks to achieve ¡°Mobility¡± and ¡°Roaming,¡± we can use Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) technology. Nevertheless, such technology might cause latency. Furthermore, how the security tunnel and header compression established before the handoff can be used by mobile terminals handoff will be another great challenge. Thus, this paper proposes to solve the problem by using Early Binding Updates (EBU) and Security Access Gateway (SAG) to offer a complete mechanism with low latency, low handoff mechanism calculation, and high security.
Face recognition presents a challenging problem in the field of image analysis and computer vision, and as such has received a great deal of attention over the last few years because of its many applications in various domains. Face recognition techniques can be broadly divided into three categories based on the face data acquisition methodology: methods that operate on intensity images; those that deal with video sequences; and those that require other sensory data such as 3D information or infra-red imagery. In this paper, an overview of some of the well-known methods in each of these categories is provided and some of the benefits and drawbacks of the schemes mentioned therein are examined. Furthermore, a discussion outlining the incentive for using face recognition, the applications of this technology, and some of the difficulties plaguing current systems with regard to this task has also been provided. This paper also mentions some of the most recent algorithms developed for this purpose and attempts to give an idea of the state of the art of face recognition technology.
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